Python is a general-purpose programming language. This means that you can build essentially anything with it.
But you're probably looking for a list of things that can be built with Python. Here are some examples.
Python is great at automating things. The pyautogui library lets you control the mouse and keyboard of your machine. The selenium framework lets you control a browser from your code. You could automate any task that's tedious or time-consuming. Here are some ideas:
A website has a front end and a back end. The front end is what the user sees. The back end has all the logic that runs in the background. Python is great for back-end development. Web frameworks for Python, such as Django and Flask, make Python a very suitable language for this part of web development.
Python is one of the most used languages in machine learning. In machine learning, the computer learns to accomplish a task by studying examples instead of being given explicit code. You could, for example, write a Python script that learns to classify images (is it a picture of a dog?).
Python is a powerful tool for cleaning, formatting, and visualizing data. You can easily read in data from a file, build excel sheets, and display beautiful graphs by using libraries meant for these tasks.
The PyGame library lets you build visual games in Python.
You can write a script that automatically collects data from the web. Your script could, for example, mine data from Twitter, or download content from hundreds of pages of a blog.
If you're looking for ideas for projects you can do, take a look at our project ideas post.